Identification and differentiation of grapevine rootstock varieties
Variety identification in vine grafting is important not only in the case of the scion but also in the rootstock. The choice of the rootstock variety can be decisive due to its compatibility with certain soil types and interactions with the scions. Usually vine varieties are identified by morphological characteristics such as leaf shape and size, as well as type and density of the hairs on the stem tips and leaves, thus requiring the presence of green tissue. Since rootstocks are traded as cuttings, their identification by morphological properties based on green tissue is naturally not possible.
Crown gall is the most important bacterial disease of vines in the northern and eastern wine-growing regions of Europe. Particularly in years with severe winter frosts, severe disease outbreaks ("tumors") can occur, which can result in the complete die-off of the vines. The causative agent is the Gram-negative bacterium Agrobacterium vitis. The disease is of great importance for grapevine breeding and grafting, as the transmission by latently infected propagating material is regarded as the most important path of transmission.
Pictorial key of central european cacopsylla species associated with rosaceae
Major phytoplasma diseases in pome and stone fruits are transmitted in Europe by psyllids. Cacopsylla picta and Cacopsylla melanoneura were identified as vectors of apple proliferation, as vectors of pear decline Cacopsylla pyri, Cacopsylla pyricola and Cacopsylla pyrisuga come into question. The European stone fruit yellows is transmitted by Cacopsylla pruni.
Risik Map PGY/FD
Risk map for the infestation of palatinate vineyards with flavescence dorée
Die Goldgelbe Vergilbung der Rebe (Flavescence dorée, FD) ist eine Quarantäne-Krankheit, die in Südeuropa große Schäden im Weinbau anrichtet und sich immer weiter nach Norden ausbreitet. Die Symptome der Krankheit sind eine Vergilbung und ein Einrollen der Blätter, Vertrocknen, Schrumpfen und Abfallen der Beeren, sowie fehlende Verholzung der Triebe.
Transformation for functional Gene Analysis
Genome sequencing and grapevine transcriptome analyses have generated a wealth of data on the structure and regulation of genes, which function, however, is often unclear. In addition to transient transformation systems (transient expression of the genes) for temporary overexpression or silencing of genes in grapevine using RNAi (RNA interference) technology, it is above all the production of stable transformants that is of great importance for the systematic analysis of gene functions in the intact plant. A prerequisite for the use of this strategy is the provision of efficient transformation and regeneration systems for grapevine.
The AlPlanta Institute for Plant Research has successfully participated in the FAPAS Proficiency Test PL0102 (Laboratory 002) and has been recognized by the Federal Biological Research Center as a laboratory for viroid testing. In recent years, Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) has been occasionally detected in potato and tomato plants in several EU Member States. The cause of the occurrence could not be elucidated. On the basis of further monitoring results that were produced in summer/autumn 2006 in the Netherlands and other EU Member States (BE, DE, FR, SI), it became clear that PSTVd could also be widely spread in ornamental plant species in Germany.
Vines and other crops
Viral diseases reduce the performance of the vines. The consequences are loss of yield stability and low quality. A recovery of the vine by plant protection measures is not possible, so that the removal of the vine, possibly even the clearing of the entire plot, is necessary. Transmission of the virus diseases most relevant to the German wine-growing regions is carried out by nematodes living in the soil. The most important viral disease is the fanleaf degeneration of the grapevine, triggered by the Grapevine Fanleaf Virus (GFLV) or other nematode-borne viruses.